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中考英语阅读理解题分析的技巧研究
  发布者:学科专家   来源:第一论文网  发布时间:2014-04-17

一、中考阅读理解题型分类

  从问题设置上可以将中考阅读理解题的题型归结为四种:

  1. 直接题目  

  这类题比较简单,只要通读全文,了解文中叙述的重要事实或细节,就可以解答出来,有的可从文章的原句中直接找到答案。

  2. 理解性题目

  这类题要求考生对文中个别难词、关键词、词组或句子作出解释。解答这类题需要对文章的上下文,甚至整篇文章的内容进行准确、全方位的理解才能得出正确答案。

  3. 推理性题目  

  这类题考生往往不能直接从文中找到答案,而需要根据上下文及其相互间的关系或对整篇文章进行深层次理解后,才能找到答案。有时还需考虑作者的态度、观点、倾向等因素,加以推理,方可获得正确的答案。

  4. 概括性题目

  这类题要求考生在阅读和理解全文的基础上对文章作出归纳概括或评价。考生在做这类题时不能只凭文中的只言片语就断章取义,而应结合语言知识、背景知识、生活常识等,对文章的主题(标题)或结论作出正确的判断。

  二、中考阅读理解材料分类

  1. 故事类

  初中生接触到的阅读材料大多是故事类。阅读故事类的材料,应该抓住人物线索、地点线索、时间线索和情节发展线索。特别需要注意的是,以上线索往往是并存的,因为情节的发展总是涉及到人物的变化、时间的推移、场景的变换等。而阅读材料后的阅读理解题往往会围绕这些内容设计一些事实类的理解题,可以从阅读材料的表层文字中找到答案。在阅读故事类短文时,应指导学生理解文章的深层含义,也就是它的主题。需要注意的是,阅读理解题在测试事实类的理解题的同时,往往有一道推理题。

  2. 科普类

  这里所指的科普类是广义的,包括介绍科学知识、社会知识的短文。阅读这类短文时,要以事实为中心进行思考,抓住事物的特征、用途、相互关系等。如果是介绍社会现象的文章,要掌握所谈现象的内涵。

  3. 图表类

  这类短文是通过看图或表格等来了解某方面的情况。指导学生阅读这类材料时,主要从两方面入手:一是了解图表的主题,确定图表的主要内容;二是推敲图画语言或数字,找出它们之间的关联或试图表达的含义。

  4. 新闻类

  报刊阅读应逐步成为中学生阅读的一个重要内容。由于新闻报道强调遵循 5 W 1 H,所以,我们在阅读时也要抓住这一点去理解。

  三、中考阅读理解题分析

  下面笔者选用一些中考阅读理解题作为例题,针对同学们在做英语阅读理解题中存在的一些问题,具体谈一谈该如何掌握正确的阅读策略和技巧,从而有效地避免做阅读理解题时容易出现的失误,提高做题成功率。

  1. 概况主旨、理清脉络、体会段落之间内在联系,做好主旨归纳题和主题判定题

  主旨归纳题和主题判定题是中考阅读理解的必考题型,具有较高的难度和区分度,一般占阅读理解总题量的10%左右。

  【策略指导】

  (1)理清文章的逻辑和脉络。

  (2)找出全文或段落的主题句。

  (3)抓中心词汇。

  【例题1

  In an American classroom a Chinese girl was asked to answer a question. She stood up and smiled without making any sound. The American teacher looked at himself and didnt see anything funny. So he asked her the question again. The girl just smiled but said nothing. The teacher was angry. He didnt know that the girl smiled to cover her embarrassment (尴尬) because she wasnt able to answer the question.

  In a dining room in Beijing an Englishman was careless and dropped a plate. The Chinese who had seen this began to laugh. The Englishman felt uncomfortable and even got angry. They are laughing at me,” he thought. In fact the Chinese laughed not at the Englishman or his bad luckwhether he is a foreigner or a Chinese. The laughter has several feelings dont take it so seriously laugh it off its nothing such things can happen to any of us etc.

  ( 56. What does the writer want to tell us

  A. Smiles and laughter dont mean

  the same thing to different people.

B. Smiles and laughter always bring

  happiness.

  C. American people are easy to get

  angry.

  D. Chinese students are impolite.

  【思路点拨】本题考查主旨大意。文章讲述了不同的国家人们的行为代表不同的含义,很容易得到答案A

  【技巧总结】我们在归纳文章主题时,一定要注意答案选项所涉及的概念的外延和内涵必须能恰如其分地概况文章的主题,既不能范围过大,也不能把某一细节或侧面误当作主题。阅读时我们还应注意捕捉文章中出现频率较高的中心词汇和全文和段落的主题句。在选择文章题目时,还应注意英语文章标题在措词上的特点——凝练和醒目。

  2. 快速准确地捕捉信息词句,做好细节理解题

  细节理解题是中考英语阅读中所占比例较大(往往在40%以上)的一个基础题型。我们要想在中考中取得理想的成绩,首先应该保证基础题型的准确率。

  【策略指导】 1. 先浏览题目,把题目的要求储存在大脑中,带着疑问快速阅读,然后找出与题目相关的信息词句加以理解和分析,去粗取精、去伪存真。此种办法能有效避免细节理解题的失误。2. 准确完整地捕捉信息。3. 对信息进行合理的分析,切忌机械照搬。

  【例题2

  There are many unusual hotels around the world. In Greenland there is a hotel made out of ice open between December and April every year. In Turkey there is a cave hotel with a television furniture and a bathroom in each room. And in Bolivia there is the Salt Palace Hotel.

  Thousands of years ago the area around the Salt Palace Hotel was a large lake. But over time all the waiter disappeared. Today the area has only two small lakes and two salt dese rts.

  The larger of the two deserts the Uyuni salt desert is 12000 square kilometers. During the day the desert is bright white because of the salt. There are no roads across the Uyuni desert so local people must show guests the way to the hotel.

  In the early 1990s a man named Juan Quesada built the hotel. He cut big blocks of salt from the desert and used the blocks to build it. Everything in the hotel is made out of salt the walls the roof (屋顶), the tables the chairs the beds and the hotels bar.  

  The sun heats (使变热) the walls and roof during the day. At night the desert is very cold but the rooms stay warm. The hotel has twelve rooms. A single room costs $40 a night and a double room costs $60.

  A sign on the hotels wall tells guests Please dont lick (舔) the walls.

  ( 55. What keeps the rooms warm at

  night  

  A. Heat from the walls.

  B. The desert air.

  C. The sun.

  D. The furniture.

  【思路点拨】本题考查细节推断。从原文倒数第二段开头两句话可以看出,太阳使墙变热, 墙又使房间变暖,所以答案选A

  【技巧总结】准确捕捉信息,并对其进行综合分析,分清主次真伪,避免受选项中虚假信息的干扰,陷入命题者所设下的“陷阱”,因为某些干扰项在文章中也能或多或少找到一点“依据”,具有很强的干扰性。

  3. 严密推理、合理想象,做好推理判断题

  推理判断题是中考阅读理解中比较有难度的题目,近年来阅读理解题中推理判断题所占比重已经增加到40%左右。

  【策略指导】

  (1 正确处理已有信息和隐含信息的关系。

  (2 调动自己的各种智力因素,严密推理,合理想象。

  (3 在阅读理解时结合自己的常识去判断是必要的,但决不能以常识取代依据文本的信息分析。推理判断既要严密,又要灵活。时时注意文章的内涵和外延,有些推理结论隐含在文章的字里行间,有些推理结论外延于文章之外。

【例题3

  On May 23 six pandas left an important panda base (基地) in Wolong southwest Chinas Sichuan Province

  because of damaged (损坏的) shelters and food shortages after the May 12 earthquake a local official said.

  The pandas were taken by trucks from China Giant Panda Protection and Research Center to Yaan another base less affected by the earthquake said Xiong Beirong an official of Sichuan Provincial Forestry Bureau (林业局).

  Eight other pandas left for the Chengdu Research Base on May 18. They will be carried by China Southern Airlines CSA to Beijing where they will stay at the Beijing Zoo said Wolong director Zhang Hemin.

  Liu Shaoyong a leader of CSA said the pandas were scheduled (预定) to leave Chengdu at 3 p.m. Saturday. They will travel on a Boeing 747-700 plane with bamboo and water.

  “There is enough water now but food is still a big problem. The pandas need bamboos and apples,” Xiong Beirong said.

  After the earthquake tons of bamboo shoots apples eggs milk powder and medicines were brought to the center but the supplies could only last about a week she said.

  There are about 1590 pandas living in the wild in China mostly in Sichuan and the northwestern provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu.

  ( 36. This passage is probably from

  ______.

  A. a novel B. a storybook

  C. a newspaper D. a diary

  【思路点拨】本题为推理判断题,答案在原文中没有直接的根据,但整篇文章读完后我们很容易得到答案C。因为汶川地震发生后,我们会最先从网络和报纸上得到相关消息,而不是从小说、故事书或日记上。

  【技巧总结】隐含信息并非“空穴来风”而是“有源之水”,即隐含信息也是以文章的语言为载体的。我们要调动自己的各种[第一论文网lunwen.1kejian.COM提供论文代写和代写论文的服务,欢迎光临]智力因素,准确捕捉信息进行严密推理,合理想象,切勿“凭空想象”或“断章取义”。在阅读理解中结合自己的常识判断是必要的,但决不能以常识判断取代信息分析。推理判断既要严谨,又要灵活。

  4. 结合语境分析和上下文的联系,做好词义理解题

  词义理解题是中考阅读理解中的必有题型,一般占10%左右。

  【策略指导】做词义理解题要从被考查词汇所处的语境和上下文的联系进行分析。

  【例题4

  We are often asked to make a speech in life. Most of us are afraid of it and dont do a good job. Here are some simple steps to make your speech a successful one. First of all find out everything you can about your subject and at the same time find out as much as you can about your audience. Who are they What do they know about your subject Put yourself in their shoes as you prepare your speech.Then try to arrange your material so that your speech is clear and easy to follow. Use as many examples as possible. Never forget your audience. Dont talk over their heads or talk down to them. When you are giving your speech speak slowly and clearly look at your audience and pause for a few seconds from time to time to give your audience chances to think over what youve said. Just remember be prepared know your subject and your audience say what you have to say and be yourself so that your ideas will bring you and your audience together.

  ( 49. What does the underlined word pause mean in the passage

  A. listen B. stop  

  C. choose D. search

  【思路点拨】本题为词义理解题。根据下文“give your audience chances to think over what youve said.”以及全文可以得到答案B

  【技巧总结】意思生僻,难以猜测的单词、短语往往出现在结构复杂的句子中,这正是议论文和说明文的文体特征之一,也是造成我们在做题时出现心理紧张的原因。遇到这种问题时,我们应该冷静下来,结合文章所说明或议论的中心话题,抓住主干,层层理解。

  四、关于2013年中考阅读理解题的教学思考  

  从教学的角度看,阅读是一个过程。我们可以根据阅读过程对学生进行阅读策略指导。

  1. 阅读前策略

  阅读之前,先做一些热身活动放松一下:就篇章题目激发学生“头脑风暴”,激活学生已经有的关于将要阅读的文章话题的了解和认识;指导学生利用标题、副标题、图片、图表等信息对文章内容进行推测等。

  2. 阅读中策略

  利用自上而下的阅读策略,根据自己的相关知识、常识和经验帮助理解文章;利用上下文猜测新词语的意义,如通过句子结构来理解新词或忽略新词,以便从整体上把握文章;找出大意的策略;找出细节和事实的策略;根据上下文推测、归纳、判断的策略等等。

  3. 阅读后策略

  说出读后感,比如愉悦、悲伤等;总结篇章大意;思考阅读中所获取的新信息以及已知信息;向其他同学咨询生词的意义;同他人讨论阅读内容等。

  4. 阅读后反思

  回顾阅读中所使用的策略;为什么选择使用这些策略?这些策略是否有用?如果阅读相类似的文章,你会选择什么样的策略?为什么要这样选择?

 

 
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