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【新课标】模块一 Unit 1 Friendship
  作者:学科专家  发布时间:2011-04-27

Section Three Grammar

 

直接引语和间接引语()

   

 品味语法

1.He said,Im going to see a film this afternoon.

2.He said that he was going to see a film that afternoon.

3.Jack said to me,I have waited for you for a long time.

4.Jack told me that he had waited for me for a long time.

5.The teacher said to us,We will have an English party next week.

6.The teacher told us that we would have an English party the next week.

 

 

讲解归纳

  当我们用引号引出别人的原话时,被引用部分称为直接引语,如上面的135中都

  用了直接引语。

  当我们间接地把别人的意思转述出来时,被转述的部分称为间接引语,如上面的24

  6中都用了间接引语。由以上例句可以体会出,直接引语变为间接引语时,人称、时

  态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词都会发生变化,现总结如下:

1.直接引语与间接引语时态变化对照一览表

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

一般过去时

 现在进行时

过去进行时

现在完成时

过去完成时

一般过去时

过去完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时

一般将来时

过去将来时

  【提醒】

  下列情况下,直接引语变间接引语时时态不变。

  (1)直接引语如果陈述的是客观事实或真理,当其变为间接引语时,不管主句用什么时

  态,间接引语的时态都不变。

  The teacher told the students,The earth goes around the sun.

  The teacher told the students that the earth goes around the sun.

  (2)直接引语中有明确的表示过去时间的状语时,变间接引语时,其时态仍保持过去时。

  The girl said,I was born in Hong Kong in 1990.

  The girl said that she was born in Hong Kong in 1990.

  (3)主句的谓语动词是一般现在时或将来时,变间接引语时,时态通常不变。

  The old gentleman often says,Time is life.

  The old gentleman often says that time is life.

2.指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化一览表

直接引语

间接引语

This

that

these 这些

those 那些

now 现在

then 那时,当时

today 今天

that day 那天

yesterday 昨天

the day before 前一天

tomorrow 明天

the next (following)day第二天

tonight 今晚

that night 那天晚上

last week 上周

the week before 前一周

next week 下周

the next week 第二周

two weeks ago两周前

two weeks before 两周前

the day before yesterday前天

two days before 两天前

the day after tomorrow后天

two days later 两天后

here 这里

there那里

come

go

bring 带来

take拿走

3.人称代词的变化

 (1)一随主。若直接引语中有第一人称,变间接引语时应与主句中主语的人称相一致。

 (2)二随宾。若直接引语中有第二人称,变间接引语时应与主句中宾语的人称相一致。

 (3)第三人称不更新。直接引语中的第三人称变间接引语时不需要变化。

4.疑问句直接引语变间接引语

 (1)直接引语为一般疑问句,变成间接引语时,常用ifwhether引导,引述动词用 asked

 没有间接宾语的可以加一个间接宾语mehim 等。

 He asked me,Are you good at English

 He asked me if/whether I was good at English.

 (2)反意疑问句变间接引语时,只能用whether来引导。

 (3)特殊疑问句变间接引语时,用原句中的疑问词作连词,将句子改为陈述语序。

 The teacher asked the boy,Why are you late again

 The teacher asked the boy why he was late again.

 I asked her,When did you come here

 I asked her when she had been there.

5.直接引语变间接引语时,还要注意几种特殊情况:

 (1)陈述句由直接引语变为间接引语时,如果有两个或两个以上的宾语从句并列时,仅

 能省略第一个 that,其余的均不可省略。

 He said,I want to visit the Great Walland my father will go with me then.

 He said (that) he wanted to visit the Great Wall and that his father would go with him then.

 (2)直接引语是祈使句时,变间接引语时常变为ask/tell/order sb.to do sth.句型。如果是以

 lets开头的祈使句,则通常变为suggest doing suggestthat 从句。

 Do it again.the teacher said to us.

 The teacher told us to do it again.

 (3)直接引语中有whensincewhile引导的从句,在变为间接引语时,只改变主句的

 时态,从句的时态不变。

 (4)如果在当地转述,here不必变为therecome不必变为go;如果在当天转述,则today

 yesterdaytomorrow等时间状语也不必变化。

 

 

 (5)有的疑问句并非提出疑问,而是表示请求、建议、劝告等意义。引述这类疑问句时,

 通常用ask/advise/want+宾语+不定式的结构,表示建议时,通常用suggest+动

 名词等结构。

 Mr.Green asked,Shall we go to Beijing to watch the Olympic Games

 Mr.Green suggested going to Beijing to watch the Olympic Games.

牛刀小试

 

.句型转换

1.He said to me,I broke your CD player yesterday.

  He told me that he had broken my CD player the day before.

2.He said to me,What can I do for you

  He asked me what he could do for me.

3.He said,I havent seen these children by now.

  He said that he hadnt seen those children by then.

4.He asked me,Can I go to see her tomorrow

  He asked me if he could go to see her the next day.

.把下列直接引语变为间接引语或间接引语变为直接引语

1.Weve lived there for two yearshe told me.

  He told me that they had lived there for two years.

2.I was here a few weeks agoshe said.

  She said she had been there a few weeks before.

3.I went to university in the 1960sWang Hua told his students.

  Wang Hua told his students that she/he went to university in the 1960s.

4.The teacher asked Wang Ying why she hadnt gone to school the day before.

  Why didnt you go to school yesterdaythe teacher asked Wang Ying.

 
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