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英语课堂教学中以语言欣赏促学生写作能力
  作者:淳安县威坪中学 颜红霞   来源:新浪博客  发布时间:2011-11-22

【摘要】  如何提升学生写作能力一直是英语教师非常重视的问题。笔者尝试挖掘新教材中的语言美,指导学生从对课文的语言欣赏入手,体会词语的生动、丰富和过渡衔接功能,领悟句子的意境美、内涵美和功能美,培养和提高对英语语言的理解和鉴赏能力,从而通过复述、仿写、一句多译、相关话题写作和修饰习作等方式,切实提升学生的写作能力。

【关键词】  教材  语言欣赏 语言运用 写作能力

《普通高中英语课程标准(实验稿)》语言技能九级目标要求:能比较详细和生动地用英语描述情景、态度或感情;能阐述自己的观点和评述他人的观点,文体恰当,用词准确。同时,高考书面表达评分标准的第5档要求指出:应用较多的语法结构和词汇,具备较强的语言应用能力,有效使用语言的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑。由此,采用什么写作资源、采取什么样的教学方法切实提升学生的写作能力,成为英语教师最为重视的现实问题。笔者尝试挖掘学生人手一本的教科书中的优美语言,作为学生欣赏英语语言的材料,引导学生学会理解和鉴赏英语语言,并通过复述、仿写、一句多译、相关话题写作和修饰习作等方式,培养和提升学生的写作能力。

一.体味语言,感悟文本之美

1. 词语美

1)生动性

语言的生动形象通过很多种方式体现。比喻作为一种最简单、最常见的修辞手法,将两种具有共同特征的事物或现象进行对比,表明本体和喻体的关系,常用的比喻词有as, like, as if, as though等。如果使用得当可以使人可见可感可悟,把简单的事物表达得更为形象,更为生动。例如,NEFC Book 1 Unit 3 “Our legs were so heavy and cold that they felt like blocks of ice.”“blocks of ice”来比喻我们的双腿长时间在寒冷天气中的麻木的感觉,使读者身临其境,感觉自己正置身于冰天雪地里,双腿已经冻得失去了知觉。从而深刻体会到姐弟俩在旅途中遭受的肉体上的艰辛,但同时也与作者在沿途中看到优美风景时的成就感形成呼应,让人感觉身体上的辛苦都算不得什么,精神上的愉悦才是最重要的。就像一句话说的人生就像一场旅行,不必在意目的地,在乎的是沿途的风景和看风景的心情。

还有一种较常用的手法是拟人,即把无生命的事物当做有生命的事物来描写,赋予无生命之物以感情和动作或是把动物人格化,使语句更为生动,表达更富情感。如NEFC Book 1 Unit 4 “A huge crack that was eight kilometers long and thirty meters wide cut across houses, roads and canals.”地震造成的裂缝本是自然发生的,但作者用了一个人为的动作“cut across”,在作者面前呈现了一个画面:房子、道路和河道因为地震被撕裂了,触目惊心。看到原本如此坚固的事物因为地震变得这么不堪一击,让人不由感慨人类在大自然面前是如此的脆弱和无力。但“Slowly, the city began to breathe again.”“breathe”的动作原本是属于生物的,但作者用来比喻救援后的城市,道出了自然灾难如此残酷,令人窒息,而国家、军队、人民的及时救助让受灾民众看到了希望,重燃生活的信心。

2)丰富性

一般来说,在用英语表达时,学生容易反复使用相同的词汇来表达一个意思,因为他

们所知道的、能够运用自如的词汇很有限,所以写出来的句子让人读了经常感觉乏味。其实,在平时的课文教学中,引导学生关注和积累同类意思的词汇,变换表达方式,可以解决这个问题,达到更好的表达效果。

NEFC Book 1 Unit 3 “I am fond of my sister but she has one serious short-coming. She can be really stubborn.”句中的“stubborn” 还可以用以下词汇来表述:determined, not change one’s mind, make up one’s mind, insist, not give in。再如NEFC Book 1 Unit 5“But I was happy to help because I knew it would help us achieve our dream of making black and white people equal. ”句中的“achieve one’s dream” 还可以说成reach one’s goalrealize one’s dreamlive one’s dreammake one’s dream come true

这样的例子在我们的教材中屡见不鲜,只要老师善于带领学生去发现,去变换,学生的词汇量一定能够得到极大的丰富和积累,写起文章来也就不会千篇一律了。

3)衔接性

由于连接词语可以体现课文中不同成分间的逻辑关系,因此,运用连接词语读者可以很快把握作者的思路,从而理解文章的意思。

NEFC Book 2 Unit 3 “Anyhow,my goal is to provide humans with a life of high quality… As a result I totally changed my shape.” 一看到 “anyhow” “as a result”这样的字眼,读者就意识到作者即将要叙述的是一些简要的、概括性的、综述性的含义。又如NEFC Book 1 Unit 3 “At first the river is small and the water is clear and cold. Then it begins to move quickly. It becomes rapids as it passes through deep valleys, traveling across western Yunnan Province. Sometimes the river becomes a waterfall and enters wide valleys. After it enters Southeast Asia, its pace slows. It makes wide bends or meanders through valleys to the plains where rice grows. At last, the river delta enters the South China Sea. ”“At first, then, as, sometimes, after, at last”这些连词把整个段落紧密地联系在一起,让人读起来感觉很流畅。同时,脑海里随着作者的描写浮现出湄公河流经不同地域呈现出的不同的形态。

2、句子美

1)意境美

教师通过帮助学生反复研读句子,揭示教学内容中蕴含的思想美、情感美、艺术美,以各种手段激发学生的情感,与英语句子产生共鸣,鼓励学生在脑海里想象出相应的画面,学会真正体会英语的语言美。

例如NEFC Book 1 Unit 3 “However, the lakes shone like glass in the setting sun and looked wonderful. ”然而,湖水在落日的余辉下闪亮如镜,景色迷人。“In the valleys colorful butterflies flew around us and we saw yaks and sheep eating green grass.”在山谷里,五彩缤纷的蝴蝶翩翩飞舞在我们身旁,我们还看见牦牛和羊群在吃草。“At midnight the sky became clearer and the stars grew brighter. It was so quiet. There was almost no wind-only the flames of our fire for company. ”半夜里,天空变得清朗了,星星更亮了。夜晚非常安静---几乎没有风,只有篝火的火焰与我们做伴。又如NEFC Book 16Unit 2 “A fallen blossom is coming back to the branch. Look, a butterfly.”落下的花朵回到了树枝上。瞧啊,是个蝴蝶。短短的几行,读者仿佛亲眼目睹了如镜般平静的湖水,成群飞舞的彩蝶,深夜野外干净的天空,俏皮的蝴蝶飞落枝头。

2)内涵美

    新课标明确指出高中英语课程应特别注重提高学生用英语进行思维和表达的能力;形成跨文化交际的意识和基本的跨文化交流的能力;进一步拓宽国际视野,增强爱国主义精神和民族使命感,形成健全的情感态度与价值观,为未来发展和终身学习奠定良好的基础。因此教师应该借助课文教学这个载体,教会学生透过这个载体挖掘出人本素质教育因素。

例如NEFC Book 2Unit 2 “As a matter of fact, every country wants the opportunity. It’s

a great responsibility but also a great honor to be chosen. ”事实上,每个国家都想抓住这个机会。被选中不仅要承担巨大的责任同时也享有极大的荣誉。这个机会指的是申办奥运会。举办奥运会可以宣传一个国家的文化,提高软势力,向世界证明一个国家的综合实力,提高在国际上的影响力,因此,各个国家都渴望得到这个机会。又如NEFC Book 2 Unit 4 “You should pay more attention to the rainforest where I live and appreciate how the animals live

together. No rain-forest, no animals, no drugs. ”森林具有净化空气,涵养水源,保持水土,防风固沙等作用,如果雨林植被遭到破坏,除会对本地区气候造成极大影响外,更重要的是会造成全球的各种生态灾难。这些都是中学生应该了解的知识,教师在教学中补充相关知识,可以帮助学生拓宽视野,以更开阔的眼光看待问题。

3)功能美

    高中英语课文篇幅较长,有自己独立的主题、完整的情节,且根据文章体裁的不同、作者写作风格的迥异,文章内容的展开、主题的呈现都会有很大的差异。因此,日常的教学材料中有很多值得我们去赏析的,如作者的写作意图、文章的脉络框架等。

例如NEFC Book 2 Unit 3 “Who Am I ?”“我是谁?这样的题目非常抓人眼球,让人看了就有马上读下去的欲望,迫切要找到这个问题的答案。“Over time I have been changed quite a lot.”用作文章的开头,起到总起的作用,使读者看了一目了然,马上意识到接下来一定是叙述改变的过程,时间、地点、人物,有助于读者掌握段落中心大意。第二段首句“These changes only became possible as my memory improved.”作为一个段落的首句起到了承上启下的作用,承接上一段中描述的发生的变化,同时引出发生这些变化的条件,说明变化的原因。第三段“Since the 1970s many applications have been found for me.”“从二十世纪七十年代起,我又被开发出了很多新的用途。上一段中提到的变化在这个段落中产生的结果就是被开发出更多的功能,应用于更加广泛的领域。

由此可见,语言赏析是一个复杂的过程,包括的内容也很多,加之受到诸多客观因素的制约,我们不可能也没必要对高中英语教材中的每一篇课文都进行面面俱到的赏析,但只要教师有意识地将文学赏析运用到课堂教学中,从点滴讲起,持之以恒,从而使英语课堂变得更加丰富生动,让学生饶有兴趣地咀嚼英语语言之美,必然会产生希望自己能够写出这样优美文字的愿望,并乐意在老师的带领下付诸实践。

二. 多样训练,提升写作能力 

 俗话说不下水,一辈子不会游泳。语言欣赏虽然对提高写作能力有一定的作用,但要从根本上提升写作能力还是要落实到笔头上。下面介绍几种笔者在平时教学中采用的一些训练形式。

1.  整理文章信息,运用语言复述

    在课文阅读理解的环节结束后,指导学生梳理文章线索时,教师可设计一些与课文相关的问题来帮助学生复述课文。教师还可板书重要的单词短语,让学生以词带句、连句成篇,顺利复述课文。为了帮助学生整体理解课文内容,教师还应进行篇章结构、文章主旨和段落大意的分析总结,这样学生可利用各段落大意和主题句等提示复述课文。此外,教师还可将文章的主要内容以完形填空的形式呈现给学生,在主要信息和重点词汇上挖空,让学生在熟悉课文内容的基础上,在不看课文的前提下,将内容补充完整。

例如NEFC Book 1 Unit 4

1 What happened before the earthquake?

For three days the water in the village wells rose and fell_. The well walls had deep cracks in them, out of which a smelly gas came. In the farmyards, the chickens and pigs were _too_ nervous _to_ eat. Mice ran out of the fields _looking for_ places to hide. Fish jumped put of their bowls and ponds. At 3:00am on July 28, 1976, bright lights appeared in the sky. The sounds of planes could be heard even when no planes were in the sky. Some water pipes _cracked_ and burst __

2 What damage did Tangshan earthquake cause?

At 3:42 am on July 28, 1976, the greatest earthquake of the 20th century shook Tangshan in Hebei Province. A huge crack cut across_ houses, roads and canals. Steam burst from holes in the ground. Hard hills of rock became rivers of dirt.  

A large city lay ruins in 15 seconds. The number of people killed or injured reached 400,000. Everything was destroyed. Most hospitals, factories and buildings _were gone__. Bricks covered the ground like red autumn leaves. Two dams and most bridges fell down.                  The railway tracks were now useless pieces of steel. Tens of thousands of cows would never give milk again. Half a million pigs and millions of chickens were dead. Sand filled the wells instead of  water. Some rescue people were trapped under the ruins. Water, food and electricity were hard to get.

→ All the people were very surprised / shocked.

3 What did the soldiers do to help the rescue workers?

The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead. They built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed. Fresh water was taken to the city, too. Hundreds of thousands of people were helped and most of the miners were rescued  from the coal mines.

→ Slowly, the city began to _breathe again

2.模仿教材例句,进行造句组段

仿写,是指导学生模仿英语中比较精彩的词语、段落进行模仿写作,借以提高其英语写作水平。仿写对于写作基础不是很好的同学来说应该是最基本、最有效的训练方法。模仿句子中好的词汇、结构和衔接,使学生充分体会汉语与英语在表达方式、句型结构及语序上的差别,逐步培养学生的英语语言意识和英语思维习惯,最终达到让学生灵活运用英语的目的。

例如NEFC Book 1 Unit 1

1)原句: “It was the first time in a year and a half that I’d seen the night face to face.”

模仿要点:句子结构:It is/was the first (second---) time that sb + 现在完成时/过去完成时

模仿:这是我们第一次面对面地谈论到这件事情。

答案: It is the first time that we have talked about this issue face to face.

模仿:这是他第二次参与怎样解决这个问题的讨论。

答案:It was the second time that he had joined in the discussion about how to deal with the problem.

2)原句: “I can well remember that there was a time when a deep blue sky, the song of the birds, moonlight and flowers could never have kept me spellbound.” (定语从句)

模仿要点:句子结构:It is/was a time when --- There is/was a time when---This/That is/was a time when---

模仿:他还记得这对他来说是一个艰难的时期,他遭受到了身心的打击。

答案:He can well remember it was a hard time when he suffered a lot physically and mentally.

模仿:在中国历史上,曾经有过一段时期中国鼓励与世界其他国家进行贸易。

答案:In Chinese history, there was a time when China encouraged trade with the rest of the world.

3)原句: “I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature.”

模仿要点: 句子结构:wonder + if 宾语从句 + so ---that 从句

模仿:我不知道是不是因为我的鲁莽使得史密斯先生对我这么生气。

答案: I wondered if it was because I was so rude that Mr Smith was so angry with me.

模仿:他在想是否因为他的朋友对他很关心所以他的心情才平复下来。           

答案: He wonders whether it was because his friends were so concerned about him that he                      

had calmed himself down.

连句成段: It is the first time that we have talked about this issue face to face. He can well remember it was a hard time when he suffered a lot physically and mentally. And he wonders whether it was because his friends were so concerned about him that he had calmed himself down.

3.激活语言积累,进行一句多译

    很多学生在英语学习中都会遇到一个同样的问题,那就是看到某个词汇和结构时感到非常的熟悉,也知道它的意思,但在自己写作时就是想不起来。其实,这是由于缺乏练习造成的。任何技能技巧,都要反复历练,如果训练达不到一定强度或熟练程度,就很难奏效。要想提高英语写作能力就要勤动笔,多注意词在用法上的特点,词的搭配,注意时态、语态,多记些连词,多用些主从复合句来代替简单句,使文章有亮点。这样就会越练越熟,把积累的词汇利用起来,让它们真正成为自己的东西。

例如NEFC Book 1 Unit 1中:呆在室内太久之后,我对自然变得狂热起来。这样的一句话可以有以下数种表达方式。

1Having stayed indoors for a long time, I became /got interested in nature.

2I had stayed indoors for so long that I became crazy about nature.

3After I stayed indoors for a long time , nature began to keep me spellbound.

4Staying inside for so long made me excited about nature.

5I was dreaming about experiencing nature after being inside for so long.

6After being inside for long, I found it so exciting to learn about nature.

4. 利用单元话题,完成写作任务

在平时的写作中,很多同学会陷入无话可说的窘境,为了凑足一百个单词绞尽脑汁,拼凑起来的文章单薄、生硬,质量不高。如果在一个单元的学习结束后,利用该单元的话题安排学生进行写作,学生们就不会出现这样的问题了。

NEFC Book 1 Unit 3Using language中记录了王坤和王薇姐弟两人在沿湄公河旅行途中在山间穿越,并在山上过夜的情形。教师可以试着让学生分析作者是按怎样的顺序记录自己的所见所闻的,并在以后的教学中逐步引导学生积累文章架构方面的知识,为学生以后的写作打下基础。在游览完一个旅游景点之后,如果让学生记录自己的所见所闻,有不少人可能感觉无话可说,或者即使有话可说,也不知从何说起。这篇文章为学生提供了一个很好的范例,教师可以借此机会指导学生如何进行旅游见闻的写作。

例如:Last autumn I took a trip with my parents to Xinjiang, the place I had always dreamt of.

What/see: lakes / butterflies / sheep / clear sky / glacier / grasslands /rapids/…

What/do: climb mountains / make camp / sing & dance / take photos /…

How/feel: surprised/ tired / excited/…

5.综合所学语言,润色修饰短文

作文润色可以从多种层面出发,如词语的正确使用、句式的变换、句子的长短、文章脉络框架等。要做到紧扣主题突出重点,表达正确文字流畅,结构规范时态无误,单词、标点无误。

例如:中学生相互交流的途径很多。请你围绕“Ways to Share Opinions with Each Other”这一话题,按照下列要点写一篇英语短文:

  1.相互交流的途径:讨论、打电话、使用网络等

  2.我的做法及理由:……

注意:词数 100 ~ 120,文章的开头已给出(不计词数)

第一稿:There are various ways for us middle school students share(非谓语动词误用) opinions with each other. Some of us like discussing. Some of us like making phone calls, Some like writing letters. Some like working on the Internet.  (句式单一)

(缺乏总起,读者无法把握大意。)First, it saves money and time than phone calls and internet. Second, with four or five fellows gathering together and discussing, we can solve the problem that we meet just now directly and conveniently, not(可考虑使用更恰当的连词) keep the puzzle in mind. Third, we’ll gain more from our companions. Fourth, (连接词使用单一)discussing will make deep impression on our mind. It helps us to learn better.  (出于连贯性和句子结构考虑,可将两句合并)

Do you agree with me?

第二稿:There are various ways for us middle school students to share opinions with each other. Some of us like discussing, some are interested in making phone calls, some are fond of writing letters , while others are preferring to work on the Internet.

As far as I’m concerned, group discussion is the best way to share ideas.(段首总起,阐明个人观点,读者一看便知下文必定是原因分析)First of all, it saves money and time than phone calls and internet. Then, with four or five fellows gathering together and discussing, we can solve the problem met (过去分词作后置定语,令句式简洁)just now directly and conveniently, rather than (连词的恰当使用使句子更连贯) keep the puzzle in mind. At the same time, we’ll gain more from our companions. Last but not least discussing will make deep impression on our mind, which helps us to learn better (非限制性定语从句使句子更连贯).

Do you agree with me?

修改后的文章变换了原有的一些过于简单的表达,并运用了多种句式结构,使文章更生动,行文更连贯,在原来的基础上有了很大的改进。

三.结束语

由此可见,即便是最常见的教科书,我们也可从中学习到丰富的语言知识,包括对固定短语﹑特殊结构﹑特殊句法的运用,词语的搭配,章法的布置等等。我们可从中积累知识﹑获取技巧,从而他物为我所用。学生通过这种方式与程序来精读﹑揣摩﹑探讨﹑欣赏及仿写这类语言,长此以往,有助于学生语言学习兴趣的提高,并通过教师指导下的训练逐渐内化,这样写起文章来自然会得心应手很多。因此,作为老师的我们,一定要做一个有心人,乐于发现、善于利用最朴实的材料里最精美的语言,让我们的学生爱上英语,于不知不觉间学会欣赏语言,运用语言,写出美丽的文章。

主要参考文献:

1. 教育部《普通高中英语课程标准》(实验稿),人民教育出版社,2003

2.《普通高中课程标准实验教科书 》,人民教育出版社,2007

3. 《中学外语教与学》,2011年第3

 

 
  相关评论 点击数:1820     评论数:4    
游客     发表评论于:2011-11-23 21:45:31
说得好合我意
游客     发表评论于:2011-11-24 11:47:37
我对于长篇大论的文章尤为反感,但是这篇文章措辞简单,语言平实,而且通过举例子的形式来解决具体的英语教学问题很好。
游客     发表评论于:2011-11-25 9:53:20
有见地
游客     发表评论于:2011-11-27 22:40:33
值得好好欣赏
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