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有关定语从句的三个问答
  作者:湖南省道县第一中学 魏继德   来源:中国英语教师教研网  发布时间:2011-12-07

1.问:aswhich引导的非限制性定语从句有什么区别?

答:Aswhich所引导的非限制性定语从句的主要区别是

which引导的非限制性定语从句,通常表示与前面句意或词组的因果关系,因此,它不能置于句首;在从句为“主语+谓语+宾语+补语”的结构中,作主语或宾语的关系代词通常用which,不用as;关系代词作前置介词的宾语时,用which,不用as;定语从句为否定句时,通常用which ,很少用as;定语从句为表示主语特征的系表结构时,关系代词通常用which,不用as。例如:

They are hollow, which makes them very light. 它们是空心的,这使得它们很轻。

My parents often treat me as a baby, which I can’t bear. 父母常常把我当小孩看待,这是我难以忍受的。

He paid the boy 10 for washing ten windows, most of which hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. 他付了那个男孩10元钱,大多数窗户至少有一年没有擦洗了。

He failed in the examination, which is unexpected (not expected). 他考试失败了,这是出乎意料的事。

She has got married to Mr.An, which is graceful. 她嫁给了安先生,这是一件美事。

as引导的非限制性定语从句,通常表示说话人的态度与看法,有时相当于一个用作插入语,可置于句首、句中或句末,且有“如……那样”或“像……那样”的含义;as作主语时,定语从句多半为被动结构,很少是系表结构(seem等动词也可以用as作主语,表语表示身份或外表印象时,as可用作表语),其常用动词为expect, hope, know, mention, see, think等。例如:

As is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior high school is increasing. 如上面提到的那样,高中学生的人数正越来越多。

As we know, the light travels faster than the sound. 像我们所知道的那样,光传播的速度比声音传播的速度快。

Taiwan is part of China, as is known to all. 众所周知,台湾是中国不可分割的部分。

从以上可一看出,定语从句如果不是位于句首,也不是“主语+谓语+宾语+补语”的结构或说明主语特征的系表结构以及否定句时,aswhich常常可以互换。例如:

It is like a snake, as /which anybody can see. 任何人都能看得出来,大象像一条蛇。

Saddam was caught, which /as seemed true. 萨大姆被捉了,这事好像是真的。

They seem a couple, as /which in fact they are. 他们好像是夫妻,事实上他们就是夫妻。

She has married Mr. An, as /which was expected. 不出所料,她已经嫁给了安先生。

2.问:that可以用作关系副词吗?

    答:that引导定语从句,除了用作关系代词外,也可用作关系副词。这种用法见于下面两种情况:

    先行词是表示时间的名词时,可用that 代替when引导定语从句,that也可以省略。例如:

    I left the day that she came. 她来的那天,我走了。

    He was my good friend during the years that I was in the countryside.他是我在农村时期的好朋友。

    It’s time (that) we went to bed.是我们就寝的时候了。

    先行词是表示原因或方式的名词时,that相当于介词+which,可以引导的定语从句,that也可以省略。例如:

    She likes the child for the very reason that (=for which) she loves his father. 她喜欢那孩子的原因是正是她爱他的父亲的原因。

He didn’t like the way that (=in which) she speaks to his mother. 他不喜欢她对他的母亲那样说话。

Imagine the speed that (=at which) he drives the car. 很难想象,他开车开得那么快。

The reason (that /for which /why) he came here was to ask for our help.他来这里的原因是寻求我们的帮助。

 

3. 怎样区别that引导的是同位语从句还是定语从句?

答:that引导同位语从句,其中心词通常是idea, news, fact, hope, thought, doubt, belief, possibility等,同位语从句是对中心词的具体内容的说明;而定语从句则对先行词起修饰和限制作用。引导词同位语从句的that为连词,不可省略,没有任何含义,也不充当任何句子成分;而引导定语从句的that为关系代词,并在从句中用作主语或宾语等,作宾语时,还可省略。请比较:

 

The news that Saddam was caught alive was true. 萨大姆被活捉的消息是真的。(同位)

The news that was reported yesterday was not true. 昨天报道的消息不是真的。(定从)

 

She has no idea that he is a general. 她不知道他是一个将军。(同位)

The idea (that) he has seems strange. 他的想法似乎有点奇怪。(定从)

 

He realizes the fact that smoking does harm. 他认识到吸烟有害的事实。(同位)

No one believed the fact (that) he made up. 没有人相信他所编造的“事实”。(定从)

 

 
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