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基于语篇的小学英语单词教学
  作者:上虞市实验小学 应天栋  发布时间:2011-12-16

 

基于语篇的单词教学是指在具体语境中教学单词,主张把单词融入句子中教学,从整体入手,展现给学生完整的语言概念。基于语篇的单词教学其核心思想在于在课堂教学中创设语境,让学生在情景中体验并运用语言,更为具体地说就是通过有意义的语言输入来激活有意义的语言输出。

在小学英语教学中进行基于语篇情境下教学单词有利于提高学生的学习兴趣,激发学生学习的动力。下面笔者以近日教学《PEP Book 6 Unit 2 A Let's Learn》为例,谈谈具体的感受。

一、语篇,让旧知复现更有量

基于语篇的单词教学,要求教师在教学中要时刻重视已学过的各种单词和句型,让学生运用有关旧知对新知进行感悟理解和描述表达,以此既达到降低新知难度的目的,又拓展了新知运用的平台。在本节课中笔者在课堂的热身阶段,将相关已学的单词和句型进行了相应的整合,帮助学生能以篇输出相关的知识,使旧知的复现更有量。

片段1

T: Hello, boys and girls. What's the weather like today?

S: It's sunny.

T: Is it warm today?

S: Yes, it is.

T: So it's ...

S: It's sunny and warm today.

T: Thanks, how about this picture?CAI呈现一些天气图片)What's the weather like it?

S1: It's sunny and hot.

S2: It's rainy and cool.

S3: It's snowy and cold.

片段2

T: When it's sunny and warm, what do you wear?CAI呈现一些服饰图片)

S: I wear my sweater.

T: What colour is your sweater?

S: They are white, blue and yellow.

T: Which one is your favourite?

S: I like yellow.

T: So yellow is your favourite colour?

S: Yes, I like yellow.

T: It is a warm colour.

T: So when it's sunny and warm, she usually wears her yellow sweater.

S1: It's sunny and warm, I usually wear my brown boots.

S2: It's snowy and cold. I usually wear my coat. Sometimes I wear my jacket.

片段3

T: It's sunny and warm. I usually wear my shirt. And I usually go hiking with my friends. How about you?

S1: It's windy and cool. I usually wear my shirt and jeans. I usually fly kites with my friend.

S2: It's sunny and warm. I usually wear my blue shirt. I usually go hiking and climb mountains with my parents.

S3: It's snowy and cold. I usually wear my coat and boots. I usually play with snow.

S4: ...

在热身复习到导入新授的过程中,教师以图片创设的情境,与学生一起交流,建立本课的基本语篇,唤醒学生头脑中的旧知,实现了语言输出量的最大化,从而为能顺利运用这些语言素材描绘和感受新知奠定基础。

二、语篇,新知学习更有效

词汇教学的一条行之有效的途径就是要让词汇教学贯穿语篇教学的全过程,把词汇的内涵、外延和学生的情感认知相融合,让学生在具体的语言环境中感受其意思,获得深刻的印象,达到积累和正确运用的目的,使语言新知的学习更加有效。

片段1

What's the weather like in spring?

It's usually _______. Sometimes it's ________.

What do you wear in spring?

I usually wear ______. Sometimes I wear ______.

What do you do in spring?

I usually  ________. Sometimes I  __________.

What can you see in spring?

I can see _______.

在这一阶段的教学中,教师组织学生以上述片段中四个问题进行讨论新授单词:spring。因为有了热身阶段大量的语言输出,学生对每个问题的回答都侃侃而谈,各抒己见。接着,笔者及时将片段中的问题隐去,要求学生以刚刚讨论的四个方面为基础来整体描述spring,组织学生与同伴相互继续讨论,各抒己见,在相互的倾听和倾述中,丰富和完善自己关于spring的描述。

片段2

S: Spring is fine.

It's usually sunny and warm. Sometimes it's windy and rainy.

Spring is beautiful.

I usually wear my yellow sweater. Sometimes I wear my black jacket.

Spring is happy.

I usually go hiking and fly kites. Sometimes I climb mountains with my parents.

Spring is colourful.

I can see many colourful flowers and colourful clothes.

I like spring very much.

S2: Spring is nice.

It's usually warm. Sometimes it's cool.

I usually wear my pink shirt and my pink skirt. Sometimes I wear my red sweater.

I usually draw pictures in the park with my dad. Sometimes I have a picnic with my parents.

I can see many beautiful flowers and sweet strawberries.

S3: Spring is busy.

It's often rainy and wet.

I usually help my mom wash the clothes.

The bees and butterflies are busy too.

They fly in the flowers.

The farmers are busy.

They plant in the field.

词汇之所以具有丰富的语言意义,除了它本身所含有的基本意思之外,更丰富的词汇意义主要通过一定的语篇来表达。

三、语篇,新知巩固更有“味”

语言学习最好的巩固方式就是运用。词汇因为语篇才能更好地体现出其丰富的词汇意义,词汇一旦离开具体的语言载体,就是一个个抽象的符号,缺失了丰富的意义,更无神韵可言;语篇,作为词汇赖以生存的主要沃土,它滋润着其中一个个词汇,使它们变得鲜活有“味”。

片段1

S1: When it's rainy and warm, spring is here.

When it's sunny and hot, summer is here.

When it's windy and cool, fall is here.

When it's snowy and cold, winter is here.

S2: Spring is a sweet season. I can eat sweet strawberries.

Summer is a sweet season. I can eat sweet ice-cream.

Fall is a sweet season. I can eat sweet apples.

Winter is a sweet season. I can eat sweet candies.

S3: Spring is happy. In spring, the fish run with the water. The clouds play with the kites. The trees dance with the wind.

Summer is happy too. In summer, the kids swim in the lake. The kids play football in the playground. The kids eat ice watermelons.

在课堂教学中,基于语篇的单词教学中,通过语篇带动语境的创设,通过语篇带动语量的输出,通过语篇带动语用的实践。在整理和倾诉语篇中,学生的旧知被激活,新授单词密切依托生成于语境中,通过理解、仿说、记忆、巩固新授单词,最终完成“语量”的积累,同时新语篇也自然地形成,让学生带着浓浓的情感进行“语用”的体验。

基于语篇的单词教学需要注意语言支架的构建,应该从有到无,再从无到有,在平时的语篇教学过程中应该有这样的意识,循序渐进,由易到难,由少到多,逐步培养和提高学生的语篇输出能力。同时,基于语篇的单词教学还需要遵循几点原则:

1. 整体性原则 

单词教学中的语篇必须作为一个完整的整体出现,具有相对完整的语意和语境,也有相对完整的语用目的和语意功能。因此,在教学中应把单词构建的语篇材料作为一个整体来处理,随着文本的展开,把相应的词汇知识渗透在整个的教学过程中,做到字不离句,句不离篇。

2. 整合性原则

单词教学既是一个独立的整体,又是单元教学的一部分,在教学过程中,把握教材间的联系,合理整合成相应的语篇后再进行教学。除教学内容的整合外,根据每个主题自身的特点,采用多种教学方法,进行有效整合,以达到教与学效果的最优化。

3. 发展性原则   

单词教学作为英语教学的基础内容,教师应时刻树立发展的教学理念,确立为学生发展的目标,根据教学的实际和学生发展的需要,有的放矢地对知识点和教学内容整合相应的语篇内容,提高学生语篇输出的质与量,从而为学生今后的学习打下扎实的基础。

总之,基于语篇的单词教学的目的不仅要让学生学习词汇内容,还要帮助学生完成简单语篇的积累,并进一步提高学生输出语篇的能力和语篇阅读的能力,从而享受到语言学习和语言交流的快乐。

 
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游客     发表评论于:2012-3-14 11:23:40
阅读了文章,才更深切理解到"词汇的语篇教学"的意义!受教了!!
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