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初中英语语法:英语介词口诀详解(3)
  发布者:学科专家   来源:沪江英语  发布时间:2012-02-08

步行、驴、马、玩笑 oncabcarriage in

例:On foot 步行; on horse 骑马; on donkey 骑驴。

He rode on, blood flowing from his side. 他骑着马,鲜血从腰部流下来。
The soldier of the Eighth Route Army rode 100 li on a horse a day in order to catch up with his unit.
为赶上部队,那位八路军战士骑马日行百里。
Go on horse back!
骑马去!
You are having me on!
你和我开玩笑呢!

in cab in carriage 不能用 on by cab carriage

at 山脚、门口在当前,速、温、日落价核心

即在山脚下、在门口、在目前,速度、以……速率、温度、在日落时、在……核心要用at

例:At the foot of the mountain, there are thirty of our comrades.
在山脚下,有我们30 个同志。
There is a beautiful lake at the foot of the hill.
山脚下有一个美丽的湖。
At the gate of the house there are many children playing glass ball.
门口有一大群孩子在玩玻璃球。
Who's standing there at the door?
谁站在门口?
I don't need the dictionary at present.
我现在还不需要这本词典。
He is at present in Washington.
他目前正在华盛顿。
The train runs at fifty kilometres an hour.
火车每小时行驶50 公里。
We built the plant at top speed and minimum cost.
我们以最低的投资,最高的速度修建了该工厂。

at home 在国内,在家里
at ten degrees centigrade
在摄氏10
at minus ten degrees centigrade
摄氏零下10
Water freezes at 0°centigrade.
水在摄氏零度结冰。
Water usually boils at 100°.
水通常在摄氏100 度沸腾。
at zero
在零度
at full speed
全速
at a good price
高价
at a low cost
低成本
at a great cost
花了很大代价
at that time
在当时
Evaporation takes place at all temperatures.
蒸发在任何温度下都能发生。
at 1000 RPM (revolution per minute)
每分钟1000
at a high speed
高速

The soldiers launched an attack upon the enemy at sunset.战士们在日落时对敌人发起了攻击。
at daybreak
日出时
The force at the core leading our cause forward is the Chinese Communist Party.
领导我们事业的核心力量是中国共产党。
The atom has a nucleus at its core.
在原子的中心有一个原子核。
At the beginning of this term the teacher in charge of our class was very strict with us.
这学期开始,我们的班主任老师对我们要求非常严格。
以及 At the first session of the First National People's congress of the People's Republic of China. 在中华人民共和国第一次全国人民代表大会第一次会议上.

常用的 at 短语有:

at first 首先,开始时
at least
至少
at all events
无论如何
at home
在家,无拘束
at one stroke
一下子
at a loss
不知怎办
at any rate
不管怎样
at length
详细地
be at high tide
处于高潮期
at our invitation
应我们的邀请
at our request
应我们的请求
at the news
听到这消息
at the risk of
……危险
at a great expense
以巨大费用
at a stroke
一举
at intervals of
每隔
at liberty
有权,随意
at the sight of
一见到
at the point of
接近,靠近
at the thought of
一想到
at the speed of
……速度
at the cost (price) of
……为代价
at leisure
闲着、失业
at the disposal of
任凭……使用
at stake
在危险中、在成败关头
at bottom
实际上、本质上
at short notice
一得到通知
at seeing us
看到我们
at the happy tidings
听到喜讯
at sixteen
16岁时
at the present stage
在现阶段
at the weekend
周末
at all times
永远
at 405 Victory Road
在胜利路405

工具、同、和、随 with,具有,独立、就、原因

例:We write with ball pens. 我们用油笔写字。(工具)

  He write in blue ink. 他用蓝水笔写字(墨水用 in 不用 with)

Theory must go hand in hand with practice. 理论必须同实践相结合。()
He is talking with friends.
他正同朋友们谈话。()
I'd like to have a dinner with a friend.
我喜欢同朋友共同进餐。
We must co-operate closely with them.
我们必须同他们紧密合作。()
We, as human beings are going to leave, but friendship has taken roots among us and our hearts are linked with yours.
我们虽然就要走了,但是友谊却在我们之间扎了根,我们的心和你们的心是紧紧相连的。(和或同〕
A cadre must become one with the masses.
干部必须和群众打成一片。
I'm with you.
我同意你。
An atom is so small that we can't see it with a microscope.
原子太小,即使用显微镜也看不见它。(工具)
In the past I had to part with my wife.
旧社会我不得不和妻子离别。()
The socialist revolution is deepening with each passing day.
社会主义革命日益深入。(随着)
They sail with the wind.
他们顺风航行。(随着)
With the change of the economic foundation, the superstructure has to be transformed too.
随着经济基础的改变,上层建筑也必须改变。(随着)
With the battle of Waterloo, Napoleon's rule in Europe was ended.
滑铁卢一战,拿破仑对欧洲的统治就完蛋了。
The modern electron tube.
随着电子管的发明而诞生了现代电子工业.
She is with child. = She is in a very interesting condition. = in a family way, = She is pregnant (in pregnancy).
她怀孕了。()

She is with a child.意为:“她领着一个孩子。
China is a very large country with a long history.
中国是一个历史悠久的大国。(具有)
China is a country with a population of one billion people.
中国是一个有10 亿人口的国家。(具有)
What is the matter with you?
怎么回事?(就,关于)
How is it with you?
你怎么啦?(就,关于)
Everything was going well with them.
他们一切都进行得很顺利。(……)
It is a very intense flash with a lot of power packed into it.
由于聚集了大量的能,所以闪光非常强烈。(独立结构)

注;即分词独立主格结构用 with

With a new welding technique introduced, the use of stainless steel was no longer limited to making small things only. 由于新的焊接技术的引进,不锈钢的使用就不仅仅局限在微小的物件上了。(独立结构)
With all its beams advancing in step with each other the laser possessed very particular properties which no ordinary light ever has.
由于激光的光束同步,所以它具有普通光所没有的特殊性质。(独立结构)
Without the temperature or pressure changed matter can never change from one state into another.
没有温度或压力的变化,物质永远不能以一种状态变到另一种状态。(独立结构)
The evil landlord was trembling with fear.
那个万恶的地主吓得浑身发抖。(原因)
My wife's hands were rough with work.
我爱人因为老干活,手很租糙。(原因)
With the help of my classmate's tape recorder I listen to the Voice of America and B.B.C every day.
借助于我同学的录音机,我每天收听美国之音和B.B.C(原因)
With television, we can see all kinds of programmes on the screen sitting at home without going to the movies and theatres.
因为有了电视,我们坐在家里就能看到各种节目, 而不必去影院、戏院了。(原因)

……来说宾译主,对、有、方状、表细分

这里的 with 后边的宾语常译成主语。

例:How are the things with you? 你情况怎样?
What's wrong with your eyes?
你的眼睛怎么啦?
Something is wrong with my hands.
我手出点毛病。
Everything was going well with them.
他们一切都进行得很顺利。
Parents must be strict with their children.
父母对子女要严格。()
The doctor was very patient with his patients.
那位医生对患者非常耐心。()
I'm quite satisfied with your answer.
我对你的回答很满意。()
Many intellectuals with revolutionary tendencies went to the liberated areas.
许多带有革命倾向的知识分子都投奔解放区了。()
These apartment houses are for workers with families.
这些住宅楼是给有家属的工人盖的。
He was sitting in a chair with his hands folded.
他两手交叉在胸前坐在椅子上。(状语)独立结构
They are highly mechanized farms, with machinery to do all the work.
它们是高度机械化的农场,所有工作都由机器进行。(状语)独立结构
上两句是 with 引出的复合结构。

I will be with you again in half an hour. 过半个钟头我还会跟你们在一起的。(with 的介词短语作表语。另注意 in 将来时态 in 以后)
Our sympathies were with the students persecuted by the gang of four during the cultural revolution.
我们是非常同情文革中被四人帮迫害的青年学生的。(with 的介词短语作表语)

海、陆、空、车、偶、被 by,单数人类 known to man

: by land (air, sea, water, bus) 陆路(航空,水陆,水路,乘公共汽车)
by micro bus
坐小面包车(微型汽车)
by mini bus
坐小面包车
by train
坐火车
by trolley bus
坐无轨电车
by tram
坐有轨电车
by bike
骑自行车
by motor car
骑摩托车
by tube
坐地铁
by airbus
坐大型客机(空中汽车〕
by jeep
坐吉普车
by chance
偶然
by accident
偶然,无意中
by virtue of
靠、由于
by leaps and bounds
大幅度地
by way of
经由
by the book
按常规

The list of discoveries by“accident”could fill a long book.偶然的发现可以写一本很厚的书。(偶然)
The law of relativity was formulated by Einstein.
相对论是爱因斯坦创立的。(被动)
The book was written by Mr. Zhang.
这本书是张先生写的。(被动)
That in 1969 the first artificial satellite was launched to the space is known to man. 1969
年第一颗人造卫星上了天是众所周知的。

这里用 to man 而不用 by。即当单数又无冠词的 man known 搭配时,表示人类不用 by

 

 
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