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用任务创设讨论情境
  作者:玉城中学 董晓敏  发布时间:2012-06-19

 

思考的问题
1. 如何在阅读活动中设计不同任务,为学生创设讨论情境,激发学生讨论兴趣?
2. 如何在任务的设计中把握讨论活动的层次性和真实性?
3. 如何让学生在完成任务中提升语言运用能力?
案例描述
1.素材背景
为了提高学生的英语语言运用能力,笔者采用任务型教学新思想,在话题的设计上为学生营造讨论的适当情境,引导学生巩固、运用和提高已初步掌握的基本技能,激发学生语言运用兴趣。在一堂阅读课上,笔者以《英语通》上一篇英语英语阅读训练“Protecting trees”为题材,进行具体的任务设计。
本课的任务目标是:
1.要求学生联系所给信息,复述内容。
2.要求学生用讨论的形式反映当前的环境问题。
3.要求学生准备一篇有关环保的演讲稿。
指导思想:①坚持以学生为中心,以任务为基础的教学原则。
②教师的作用:设计者、组织者、促进者、协调者。
③积极创造让学生使用英语的机会,使他们学以致用。
2.教学过程
任务1.根据信息复述短文
笔者先呈现4个句子,
Sentence 1:Xiao Ming used to send a lot of cards to his friends at new year time.
Sentence 2:Now,more and more trees are cut down,which brings on serious problems.
Sentence 3:Houses are destroyed and the rich soil is always washed away by flood.
Sentence 4:Xiao Ming sends his wishes to his friends by the telephone instead of sending
cards.
我将学生分成4人1组,让学生注意⑴短文需用时态⑵短文该用的人称,然后分组讨论用连词,以及如何运用一些承上启下的句子和变化多样的句式(如简单句、并列句、复合句交错使用,鼓励运用长句),将这些句子组织起来,最终形成一篇完整的英语作文,
这样的训练有一定的难度,所给信息较抽象,且句与句之间的信息联系不大,需要学生发挥想象力与合作精神。经过各组讨论,学生还是积极、较好地完成了任务。
其中选摘一篇范文如下:
Xiao Ming used to send a lot of cards to his friends at new year time.But one day he saw a report in the newspaper,it said that cards are made from trees.Today,more and more trees have been cut down,which leads to serious floods in some areas.Houses are destroyed and the rich soil is carried away.Xiao Ming felt shocked at the report in the newspaper and realized the importance of protecting trees.From now on he decides to send his wishes to his friends by telephone instead of sending cards.
任务2:讨论环境问题
笔者继续运用上述信息,向学生提出问题:
T:Why did Xiao Ming decide to change the way of sending his wishes?
S:Because he read a report.
T:OK.What report did he read?Now,Let me show you some pictures.
这时,笔者便向学生展示了一些人类滥伐树木后所引起的洪水灾害的图片,在学生看完这些触目惊心的图片后,笔者设法将话题引到设计好的任务上,用如下问题,让学生进行思考与回答。
T:When you find such serious problems in your homeland,how do you feel?
Ss:Sad/Surprised/Angry……
T:To whom would you like to show your feeling?
S1:Write it in my diary.
S2:Talk with my friends.
S3:Write to the newspaper.
T:I think you’ve thought of good ways.Now,suppose you were Xiao Ming,and you are going to write a letter to an editor in Tai Zhou daily,telling him about your opinion of the serious situation in Yu huan.
这时我向学生布置了相关的讨论任务:1)目前的树木滥伐问题;
2)你认为砍伐树木的造成的危害.
接着便是分组讨论,再相互总结修改,最后让1名学生代表发言,进行全班交流,其中有一组合作文章说得不错。
S1:In the past,my home town used to be a beautiful place.It was surrounded by plenty of trees and covered by green grass every where.
S2:Later,people destroyed many trees to get what they wanted.Much of the farm land has become wasteland.
S3:What’s worse,this wasteland is increasing and our villagers are suffering from sand storms.
S4:I think it’s time for us to realize the importance of protecting the environment,the way is……
(I’m sure that our home town will become beautiful again a few years time if we do so.
通过上面两项任务的布置,锻炼了学生分析所给信息的审视能力,又提高了他们遣词造句、连句成篇以及互相合作的能力。
3. 发言稿
在设计最后的讨论任务时,我将内容锁定在发言稿上。
T:Now,the class meeting is being held on time.
The teacher is introducing some information about the differences between the early earth and the present earth,showing a table on the flash card.
教师呈现一张表格,表现过去的地球与现在的地球的明显差别.

地球的脸
地球的遭遇
In the past
not so many people on the earth
natural resources seemed to be unlimited
the air is fresh
At the present
the world becomes too crowded
We are using up natural resources
We are polluting our environment
with dangerous chemicals.
……

通过地球的脸的变化,让学生感知人类对地球的破坏,通过表格上的省略号,教师让学生继续补充能让地球伤心的事,学生通过一番群情高涨的发言后,教师乘热打铁式地布置任务:
1. 准备一篇演讲演
2. 主题为“saving our earth
3.观点明确,语言流畅,应有演讲气势
接着分组讨论,要求学生互相补充,启发,完成任务。通过几分钟的准备,许多学生的演讲稿都准备得非常精彩。其中选摘其中一篇的一部分内容如下所示:
Saving Our Earth
……
Every one realized today that if too many fish are taken from the sea,there will soon be none left.Yet,with some modern fishing materials,more and more fish are caught.
We also know that if too many trees are cut down,forests will disappear and nothing will grow on the land.Yet we still continue to use bigger and more powerful machines to cut down more and more trees,some are still very very young!
……
If people are well educated,they will think about the problems they face and we’ll have a better and cleaner earth in the future.
这种训练能对学生的德育、情感渗透的教育相结合,既加深了学生对环保主题的重要性的理解,又让他们提高了相关的语言运用能力。
体会与思考
1.任务链的把握。
任务的设计应遵循前后相连、层层深入的原则,使得教学呈阶梯式层层推进,构成一个“任务链”,教师要使任务的设计具有激励性,就应根据不同层次学生的水平,创设不同的任务型活动,使得任务具有趣味性,可操作性和拓展性。通过输入贴近生活,学习经历和社会实际的材料,让学生通过思考、讨论、交流与合作等方式,动口、动手、动脑,在完成任务中使用英语,在运用英语中完成任务,获得成就感。
2.任务的创设要富有情境性。
教师的任务由单纯的知识的传授者,变为学习的组织者,引导者和促进者,通过设计学习环境,组织学习资源,创造交际环境,引导学生主动撷取知识和创造性地应用所学知识。在教学过程积极创造真实地语境,开展有实际意义的、富有创造性的语言交际运用活动。鼓励学生使用语言来表达的是思想,而并不是单纯重复句型,从而培养学生分析语言,以获取信息交流信息和处理信息的创造性能力。
3.学生完成任务要有自主的空间和时间
教育研究表明,学生对于教师给出的任务,只有在1—2分钟的调整和信息处理后才会对所提问题展开有意义的思维活动,若是教师在给出任务后,立即让学生进行组织撰写或是口头编写,便剥夺了学生的自主思考的空间和时间,从而降低了他们思维的力度,减少学生情感体验和感悟的可能,也就无法培养学生的创新思维。因此,教师在训练的过程中,通过讨论、交流、思考等形式的运用,学习和操练的任务逐渐由教师转移给学生,让学生自己去探索,自己去发现,自己去合作,自己去解决,从而提高他们学习的自主性和学习的能动性,让学生在写作训练中获得学习的安全感和成就感。

 

 
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